Fabric

Sateen (fr.Satin, origin arab. Zaituni from Zaitun – old Arabian name of Chinese harbor Quanzhou, where from this fabric was delivered) – fabric of yarn sateen construction from cotton fiber. It has flat and silk-like top face, where filler threads are predominant; of rather close texture and sparkle; it is produced, mainly, all over colored, printed and bleached. The sheen and softer feel of sateen is produced through the satin weave structure. Warp yarns are floated over weft yarns, for example four over and one under. (In a weft-faced satin or sateen, the weft yarns are floated over the warp yarns).

Standard plain weaves use a one-over, one-under structure. The long floats produce a surface that is smooth to the touch and reduces light scattering to increase shine. This weave structure is more susceptible to wear than other weaves.

In modern times cheaper rayon is often substituted for cotton. Better qualities are mercerized to give a higher sheen. Some are only calendered to produce the sheen, but this disappears with washing.

Taffeta — is a crisp, smooth, plain woven fabric made from silk or cuprammonium rayons. It is considered to be a “high-end” fabric, suitable for use in ball gowns, wedding dresses, and interiors for curtains or wall covering.

The word is Persian in origin and means “twisted woven”.

It yields a more starched-like type of cloth that holds its shape better than many other fabrics.

Crape (fr. crêpe; Latin. crispus — pebbly, wavy) — ), a silk fabric of a gauzy texture, having a peculiar crisp or crimpy appearance.

The wavy appearance of crape results from the peculiar manner in which the weft is prepared, the yarn from two bobbins being twisted together in the reverse way, when the gum is subsequently extracted by boiling it at once becomes soft, and the weft, losing its twist, gives the fabric the waved structure which constitutes its distinguishing feature.

Commercially they are distinguished as single, double, three-ply and four-ply crapes, according to the nature of the yarn used in their manufacture. They are almost exclusively dyed black and used in mourning dress Crapes are used, either white or colored, for ladies’ scarves and shawls, bonnet trimmings.